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73. Towards the Development of a Sensitive and Selective Electrochemical Aptamer-based Ampicillin Sensor. Yu, Z.; Sutlief, A. L.; Lai, R. Y.*, Sensors and Actuators: B. Chemical, 2017, accepted.


72. Hexavalent Chromium as an Electrocatalyst in DNA Sensing. Lofti Zadeh Zhad, H. R.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2017, accepted.

Website TOC

71. A Reagentless and Reusable Electrochemical Aptamer-based Sensor for Rapid Detection of Cd(II). Lofti Zadeh Zhad, H. R.; Rodriquez Torres, Y. M.**; Lai, R. Y.*, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2017, 803, 89-94.

Website JELECHEM Cd paper

70. A Reagentless and Reusable Electrochemical Aptamer-based Sensor for Rapid Detection of Ampicillin in Complex Samples. Yu, Z.; Lai, R. Y.*, Talanta, 2018, 176, 619-624.

Andy AMP Talanta website pic

69. A Tunable “Signal-off” and “Signal-on” Electrochemical Cisplatin Sensor. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2017, 89, 9984-9989.


68. Iron(III)-mediated Electrochemical Detection of Levofloxacin in Complex Biological Samples. Lofti Zadeh Zhad, H. R.; Lai, R. Y.*, Electroanalysis, 2017, 29, 2672–2677.

Pic on website Levo

67. Effects of DNA Probe Length on the Performance of a Dynamics-based Electrochemical Hg(II) Sensor. Wu, Y.; Baker, S. L.**; Lai, R. Y.*, Electroanalysis, 2017, 29, 2239-2245.

Lai Lab website paper pic

66. Electrochemiluminescence Detection in Paper-based and Other Inexpensive Mmicrofluidic Devices. Gross, E. M.*; Durant H. E.**; Hipp, K. N.; Lai, R. Y.*, ChemElectroChem, 2017, 4, 1594–1603.


65. Structural and Optical Properties of Alumina Passivated Amorphous Si Slanted Columnar Thin Films During Electrochemical Li-ion Intercalation and Deintercalation Observed by In-situ Generalized Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Sekora, D.; Lai, R. Y.; Schmidt, D.; Schubert, M.; Schubert, E.*, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 2017, 35, 031401. (Editor’s Pick)


64. Chapter 8 – Folding- and Dynamics-based Electrochemical DNA Sensors. Lai, R. Y., Enzymes as Sensors, Methods in Enzymology, 2017, 589, 221-252.



63. Solution-stable Anisotropic Carbon Nanotube/graphene Hybrids Based on Slanted Columnar Thin Films for Chemical Sensing. Wilson, P. M.; Zobel, A.; Zaitouna, A. J.; Lipatov, A.; Schubert, E.; Hofmann, T.; Schubert, M.; Lai, R.; Sinitskii, A.*, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 63235-63240.


62. A Reagentless DNA-based Electrochemical Silver(I) Sensor for Real Time Detection of Ag(I) — the Effect of Probe Sequence and Orientation on Sensor Response. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Biotechnology Journal, 2016, 11, 788-796.


61. An Electrochemical Gold(III) Sensor with High Sensitivity and Tunable Dynamic Range. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2016, 88, 2227-2233.


60. Electrochemical Detection of Platinum (IV) Prodrug Satraplatin in Serum. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 11092-11097.


59. Scanning Electrochemical and Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species in Living Cells. Salamifar, S. E.; Lai, R. Y.*, ACS Symposium Series eBooks. Oxidative Stress: Diagnostics, Prevention, and Therapy Volume 2, 2015, Chapter 17, 415-430.


58. Comparison of Nanostructured Silver-modified Silver and Carbon Ultramicroelectrodes for Electrochemical Detection of Nitrate. Lofti Zadeh Zhad, H. R.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2015, 892, 153-159.


57. Incorporation of Extra Amino Acids in Peptide Recognition Probe to Improve Specificity and Selectivity of an Electrochemical Peptide-based Sensor. Zaitouna, A. J.; Maben, A. J.**; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2015, 886, 157-164.


56. Comparison of Mannose, Ethylene Glycol and Methoxy-terminated Diluents on Specificity and Selectivity of Electrochemical Peptide-based Sensors. Zaitouna, A. J.; Joyce, J.**; Cerny, R. L.; Dussault, P. H.; Lai, R. Y.*,  Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 6966-6973.


55. Methylene Blue-Mediated Electrocatalytic Detection of Hexavalent Chromium. Korshoj, L. E.**; Zaitouna, A. J.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2560-2564.



54. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Sensors Fabricated Using Cytochrome c Immobilized on Macroelectrodes and Ultramicroelectrodes. Salamifar, S. E.; Lee, S.**; Lai, R. Y.*, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2014, 123, 866-869.


53. Effects of DNA Probe and Target Flexibility on the Performance of a “Signal-on” Electrochemical DNA Sensor. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2014, 86, 8888-8895.


52. Application of Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy for Characterization of Electrochemical DNA Sensors. Salamifar, S. E.; Lai, R. Y.*,Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2014, 122, 835-839.


51. Hg(II)-mediated “Signal-on” Electrochemical Glutathione Sensor. Lofti Zadeh Zhad, H. R.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 8385- 8387.


50. An Electrochemical Peptide-based Ara h 2 Antibody Sensor Fabricated on a Nickel (II)-Nitriloacetic Acid Self-assembled Monolayer Using a His-tagged Peptide. Zaitouna, A. J.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2014, 828, 85-91.


49. Use of Thiolated Oligonucleotides as Anti-fouling Diluents in Electrochemical Peptide-based Sensors. McQuistan, A.**; Zaitouna, A. J.; Echeverria, E.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 4690-4692.


48. Fabrication of Electrochemical DNA Sensors on Gold-modified Recessed Platinum Nanoelectrodes. Salamifar, S. E.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2014, 86, 2849-2852.


47. Effect of Redox Label Tether Length and Flexibility on Sensor Performance of Displacement-based Electrochemical Nucleic Acid Sensors. Yu, Z.; Zaitouna, A. J.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2014, 812, 176-183.


46. Three-Dimensional Periodic Graphene Nanostructures. Wilson, P.; Mbah, G. N.; Smith, T. G.; Schmidt, D.; Lai, R. Y.; Hofmann, T.; Sinitskii, A.*, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, 2, 1879-1886.


45. Characterization of an Electrochemical Mercury Sensor Using Alternating Current, Cyclic, Square Wave and Differential Pulse Voltammetry. Guerreiro, G. V.**; Zaitouna, A. J.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2014, 810, 79-85.



44. Use of Combined Scanning Electrochemical and Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species in Prostate Cancer Cells. Salamifar, S. E.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 9417-9421.

43. Electrochemical Techniques for Characterization of Stem-loop Probe and Linear Probe-based DNA Sensors. Lai, R. Y.*; Walker, B.**; Stormberg, K.**; Zaitouna, A. J.; Yang, W., Methods, 2013, 64, 267-275.

42. A Whole-cell Sensor for the Detection of Gold. Zammit, C. M.*; Quaranta, D.; Gibson, S.; Zaitouna, A. J.; Ta, C.; Brugger, J.; Lai, R. Y.; Grass, G.; Reith, F., PLoS ONE 8(8): e69292.

41. Design and Synthesis of a New Class of Twin-Chain Amphiphiles for Self-Assembled Monolayer-based Electrochemical Biosensor Applications. Fisher, T. J.; Cañete, S. J. P.; Lai, R. Y.; Dussault, P. H.*, European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2013, 16, 3263-3270.

40. Development of a “Signal-on” Electrochemical DNA Sensor with an Oligo-thymine Spacer for Point Mutation Detection. Wu, Y.; Lai, R. Y.* Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 3422-3424.

39. The Effect of Signaling Probe Conformation on Sensor Performance of a Displacement-based Electrochemical DNA Sensor. Yu, Z.; Lai, R. Y.*, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 3340-3346.

38. Conference Report: Chemistry: A Bridge to Discovery. Gross, E. M.*; Lai, R. Y., Bioanalysis, 2013, 5, 131-133.

37. Development of an Electrochemical Insulin Sensor Based on the Insulin-linked Polymorphic Region. Gerasimov, J. Y.; Schaefer, C. S.; Yang, W.; Grout, R. L.**; Lai, R. Y.*, Biosens. Bioelectron., 2013, 42, 62-68.


36. A Reagentless and Reusable Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Target Hybridization-induced Stem-loop Probe Formation. Yu, Z.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 10523-10525.

35. A Dual-signalling Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Target Hybridization-induced Change in DNA Probe Flexibility. Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 8703-8705.


34. Combined Optical and Acoustical Method for Determination of Thickness and Porosity of Transparent Organic Layers Below the Ultra-thin Film Limit. Rodenhausen, K. B.*; Kasputis, T.; Pannier, A. K.; Gerasimov, J. Y.; Lai, R. Y.; Solinsky, M.; Tiwald, T. E.; Wang, H.; Sarkar, A.; Hofmann, T.; Ianno, N.; Schubert, M., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2011, 82, 103111-103120.

33. Comparison of the Stem-loop and Linear Probe-based Electrochemical DNA Sensors by Alternating Current Voltammetry and Cyclic Voltammetry. Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.* Langmuir, 2011, 27, 14669-14677.

32. Design and Characterization of a Metal Ion-Imidazole Self-Assembled Monolayer for Reversible Immobilization of Histidine-tagged Peptides. Zaitouna, A. J.; Lai, R.Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 12391-12393.

31. Application of Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy for Determination of Spatial Distribution of Methylene Blue Conjugated onto a SAM via “Click” Chemistry. Cañete, S. J. P.; Zhang, Z.; Kong, L.; Schlegel, V. L.; Plantz, B. A.; Dowben, P. A.; Lai, R. Y.* Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 11918-11920.

30. Integration of Two Different Sensing Modes in an Electrochemical DNA Sensor for Approximation of Target Mismatch Location. Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.*, Electrochemistry Communications. 2011, 13, 989-992.

29. Design and Characterization of an Electrochemical Peptide-based Sensor Fabricated via “Click” Chemistry.  Gerasimov, J. Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 8688-8690.

28. High-sensitivity Detector for Molecular Sensing Using Magnetic Particles. Le Roy, D.*; Yang, W.; Yin, X.; Lai, R. Y.; Liou, S.-H.; Sellmyer, D. J., Journal of Applied Physics. 2011, 109, 07E532.

27. A Folding-based Electrochemical Aptasensor for Detection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Human Whole Blood. Zhao, S.; Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.*, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2011, 26, 2442-2447.

26. Effect of Diluent Chain Length on the Performance of the Electrochemical DNA Sensor at Elevated Temperature. Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.*, Analyst, 2011, 136, 134-139.


25. Fabrication of an Electrochemical DNA Sensor Array via Potential-assisted “Click” Chemistry. Caňete, S. J. P.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 3941-3943.

24. An Electrochemical Peptide-based Biosensing Platform for HIV Detection. Gerasimov J. Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 395-397.


23. Folding-based Electrochemical DNA Sensor Fabricated by “Click” Chemistry . Caňete, S. J. P.; Yang, W.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2009, 4835-4837.

22. Folding-based Electrochemical DNA Sensor Fabricated on a Gold-plated Screen-printed Carbon Electrode. Yang, W.; Gerasimov J. Y.; Lai, R. Y.*, Chem. Commun., 2009, 20, 2902-2904.

21. Continuous, Real-Time Monitoring of Cocaine in Undiluted Blood Serum via a Microfluidic, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensor. Swensen, J. S.; Xiao, Y.; Ferguson, B. S.; Lubin, A. A.; Lai, R. Y.; Heeger, A. J.; Plaxco, K. W.; Soh, H. T.*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 4262-4266.


20. Microfluidic Device Architecture for Electrochemical Patterning and Detection of Multiple DNA Sequences. Pavlovic, E.; Lai, R. Y.; Wu, T. T.; Ferguson, B. S.; Sun, R.; Plaxco, K. W.; Soh, H. T.*, Langmuir, 2008, 24, 1102-1107.


19. Preparation of Electrode-immobilized, Redox-modified Oligonucleotides for Electrochemical DNA and Aptamer-based Sensing. Xiao, Y.; Lai, R. Y.; Plaxco, K. W.*, Nature Protocols, 2007, 2, 2875-2880.

18. Linear, Redox Modified DNA Probes as Electrochemical DNA Sensors. Ricci, F.; Lai, R. Y.; Plaxco, K. W.*, Chem. Commun., 2007, 36, 3768-3770.

17. Effect of Molecular Crowding on the Response of an Electrochemical DNA Sensor. Ricci, F.; Lai, R. Y.; Heeger, A. J.; Plaxco, K. W.; Sumner, J. J.*, Langmuir, 2007, 23, 6827-6834.

16. Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Detection of Picomolar Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Directly in Blood Serum. Lai, R. Y.; Plaxco, K. W.*; Heeger, A. J., Anal. Chem., 2007, 79, 229-233.


15. A Comparison of the Signaling and Stability of Electrochemical DNA Sensors Fabricated from 6- or 11-Carbon Self-Assembled Monolayers. Lai, R. Y.; Seferos, D. S.; Heeger, A. J.; Bazan, G. C.; Plaxco, K. W.*, Langmuir, 2006, 22, 10796-10800.

14. α, ω-Dithiol Oligo(phenylenevinylene)s for the Preparation of High-Quality π-Conjugated SAMs and Nanoparticle Functionalized Electrode. Seferos, D. S.; Lai, R. Y.; Plaxco, K. P.; Bazan, G. C.*, Adv. Func. Mater., 2006, 16, 2387-2392.

13. Sequence-Specific, Electronic Detection of Oligonucleotides in Blood, Soil and Foodstuffs with the Reagentless, Reusable E-DNA Sensor. Lubin, A. A.; Lai, R. Y.; Baker, B. R.; Heeger, A. J.; Plaxco, K. W.* Anal. Chem., 2006, 78, 5671-5677.

12. An Electronic Aptamer-Based Small Molecule Sensor for the Rapid, Label-Free Detection of Cocaine in Adulterated Samples and Biological Fluids. Baker, B. R.; Lai, R. Y.; Wood, M. S.**; Doctor, E. H.**; Heeger, A. J.; Plaxco, K. W.*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 3138-3139.

11. Rapid, Sequence-Specific Detection of Unpurified PCR Amplicons Via a Reusable, Electronic Sensor. Lai, R. Y.; Legally, E. T.; Lee, S-H.; Soh, H. T.; Plaxco, K. W.*; Heeger, A. J.*, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2006, 103, 4017-4021.

10. Differential Labeling of Closely-spaced Biosensor Electrodes via Oxidative Desorption. Lai, R. Y.; Lee, S-H.; Soh, H. T.; Plaxco, K. W.*; Heeger, A. J., Langmuir, 2006, 22, 1932-1936.


9. Electrons Are Transported through Phenylene-Ethynylene Oligomer Monolayers via Localized Molecular Orbitals. Fan, F-R. F.; Lai, R. Y.; Cornil, J.; Karzazi, Y.; Brédas, J-L.; Cai, L.; Cheng, L.; Yao, Y.; Price, D. W.; Dirk, S. M.; Tour, J. M.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 2568-2573.

8. Photophysical, Electrochemical, and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescent Studies of Selected Nonplanar Pyrenophanes. Lai, R. Y.; Fleming, J. J.; Merner, B. L.; Vermeij, R. J.; Bodwell, G. J.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2004, 108, 376-383.


7. Synthesis, Cyclic Voltammetric Studies, and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of a New Phenoquinoline-Biphenothiazine Donor-Acceptor Molecule. Lai, R. Y.; Kong, X.; Jenekhe, S. A.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 12631-12639.

6. Photophysical, Electrochemical and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescent Properties of Selected Dipyrromethene-BF2 Dyes. Lai, R. Y.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2003, 107, 5036-5042.

5. The Application of ECL to Determine Electrode Potentials of Tri-n-propylamine, its Radical Cation, and Intermediate Free Radical in MeCN/Benzene Solutions. Lai, R. Y.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2003, 107, 3335-3340.


4. Detection of Sodium Ion with a Ruthenium (II) Complex With Crown-Ether Moiety at 3, 3’-Positions on the 2, 2’-Bipyridine Ligand. Lai, R. Y.; Chiba, M,; Kitamura, N.; Bard, A. J.*, Anal. Chem., 2002, 74, 551-553.


3. Synthesis, Cyclic Voltammetric Studies and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of a New Donor-Acceptor Molecule: 3,7-[bis[4-phenyl-2-quinolyl]]-10-methylphenothiazine. Lai, R. Y.; Fabrizio, E. F.; Lu, L.; Jenekhe, S. A.; Bard, A. J.*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123, 9112-9118.

2. Quantification of Dopant Ions in Polypyrrole Films with Electrochemical ICP-Atomic Emission Spectrometry: Development and Comparison with Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies. Briseno, A. L.; Baca, A. J.**; Zhou, Q.; Lai, R. Y.**; Zhou, F.*, Anal. Chim, Acta, 2001, 441, 121-132.


1. Selective Determination of Methylmercury by Flow-Injection Fast-Scan Voltammetry. Lai, R. Y.**; Huang, E. L.; Zhou, F.*; Wipf, D. O., Electroanalysis, 1998, 10, 926-930.


6. Combined use of oscillating means and ellipsometry to determine uncorrelated effective thickness and optical constants of material deposited at or etched from a working electrode that preferably comprises non-normal oriented nanofibers.

Schubert, M. M.; Hofmann, T.; Woolam, J. A.; Lai, R. Y. (Application number: US 62/283,115).

5. Electrochemical Sensors and Methods of Using

Lai, R. Y. (Application number: 20150177181) 

4. Self-assembled Monolayers and Methods for Using the Same in Biosensing Applications

Dussalt, P. H.; Lai, R. Y.; Fisher, T.; Zaitouna, A. J. (US Patent 9079835)

3. Optical Sensing and Separation Based on Ordered Three-dimensional Nanostructured Surfaces

Schubert, M. M.; Hofmann, T.; Schmidt, D.; Dussault, P. H.;   Holmes, A.; Lai, R. Y. (US Patent 9739710)

2. Fabrication of Electrochemical Biosensors via Click Chemistry

Lai, R.Y.; Cañete, S. J. P. (Application number: 20110210017) 

1. Gold-plated Screen-printed Electrodes and Their Use as Electrochemical Sensors

Lai, R.Y.; Yang, W. (Application number: 20110139636)

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